Iodine

IODINE_PTC1

#Iodine is a chemical #element with symbol I and the atomic number 53. Its main area of use is in nutrition and is also used as an electrolyte in production of acetic acid and some #polymers. Its relatively high atomic number, low toxicity and ease of attaching to organic compounds has made its radioisotopes a part of #X-Ray contrast materials.
Iodine is found in oceans and brine pools. It is soluble in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulfide but is only slightly #soluble in #water. #Iodine derivatives are widely used in medical treatment of iodine deficiency related diseases such as Goiter. Iodides and thyroxine mixed with #alcohol produce tincture of iodine which is the most favored disinfectant and is widely used in surgeries and treatment of external wounds. #Potassium #iodide is used in photography and tungsten iodide in #production of light bulbs.
Iodine has 30 isotopes out of which only I-127 is stable. Its I-131 isotope with a half life of 8 days is used in treatment of cancer and thyroid #diseases. I-125 has a half life of 59 days and is used a source of Gamma ray used to kill tumors. I-123 with a half life of only 13 hours is the choice isotope of nuclear medicine imaging of the thyroid gland. Non radioactive potassium iodide is used to saturate the thyroid gland with iodine and hence protect it against I-131 generated by #nuclear fission.
Iodine is one of the most scarce elements on #earth. It is found in small quantities in rocks, soil, plant and the oceans and seas. The first successful manufacturing of Iodine was from seaweed in 1817. #Seaweed was dried, burned and separated to obtain potassium iodine. This scheme is no longer practiced. It is now extracted from brine or from caliche ore deposits.

#ید عنصری شیمیائی با علامت اختصاری I و وزن #اتمی 53 می باشد که به عنوان محصول جانبی سنگ# معدن های نیتراته مرتبط با رسوبات کربنات کلسیم به دست می آید . ید همچنین به صورت محلول و به میزان  0.05 میلی گرم در لیتر در آب دریاها و اقیانوس ها وجود دارد، به عبارت دیگر میزان ید موجود در این آب ها 35 میلیون تن است .

ید نخستین بار از جلبک های خشک شده  جداسازی شد . این عنصر همچنین از شورابه های اعماق #زمین که معمولاً به همراه نفت و گاز خارج می شوند به دست می آید .بدلیل میل ترکیبی شدید با سایر #عناصر ، ید دارای ترکیبات زیادی است که در #پزشکی و# صنعت کاربرد گسترده دارند . این #عنصر همچنین برای رشد انسان با توصیه به مصرف 150 میکروگرم در روز حیاتی است .

 

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